Christmas butterfly coloring pages

As with most butterflies, various predators, parasitoids and diseases attack Papilio demodocus, so that integrated pest management is generally the most rational approach to control of infestations, paying due attention to avoiding destruction of the populations of enemies. In particular parasitic wasps in the family Encyrtidae, such as some species of the genus Ooencyrtus develop in Papilio eggs. Other parasitoidal wasps in families such as Chalcidae and Braconidae (for example genus Apanteles) attack the larvae, and Pteromalidae (for example genus Pteromalus) are parasitoids of the pupae. Predatory insects such as certain Heteroptera, in particular Reduviidae known as assassin bugs, and some Pentatomidae attack the larvae, and certain Mantodea such as genus Sphodromantis attack both larvae and adults.

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